The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 52 216 km2
Population: 1 436 300 persons.
Emblem of Voronezh Region
Flag of Voronezh Region
Voronezh region is a subject of the Russian Federation
The administrative center is Voronezh.
Founded on June 13, 1934.
Borders in the south on Ukraine and the Rostov oblast, in the west – with the Belgorod oblast, in the north-west with Kursk, in the north with Lipetsk and Tambov oblasts, in the south-east with the Volgograd oblast, in the east – with Saratov area.
Population of the Voronezh oblast comprised - 2 280 400 thousand people (as of 2010), of whom 63% live in cities and towns.
In the Voronezh oblast there are 534 municipalities, including 3 urban districts, 31 municipal districts, 29 towns, 471 rural settlements.
The first historical mention of Voronezh refers to the XII—XIII centuries. The first time this name appears in the description of the princely quarrels in 1177, then in the story of the Batu invasion in 1237.
As a result of the Mongol-Tatar yoke Voronezh was completely destroyed and the surrounding villages also fell into disrepair and neglect. The word "Voronezh" in reference to the city disappears from the chronicles, but is preserved the name of the river.
Modern Voronezh was founded in 1585 as a fortress city on the southern Russian borders for protection from the raids of Crimean and Nogai Tatars. By the middle of the XVII century Voronezh became the largest shopping center in south-eastern Russia, and in 1696, by the order of Peter the Great the first Russian fleet was built at the city's shipyards.
In 1711, Voronezh became the administrative center of the Azov guberniya, in 1725 renamed Voronezh. At the end of the XVIII century the guberniya acquired an important agricultural value, and processing industry began to develop in the city itself .
At the beginning of XX century about 61 thousand people lived in Voronezh, there were 47 factories, the city was deservedly proud of their culture, suffice it to mention the Voronezh Drama Theatre named after A.V. Koltsov.
In 1928, Voronezh became the center of the Central Black Earth region, bringing together the Voronezh, Tambov, Kursk and Orel guberniyas. The Voronezh oblast as a separate administrative unit was created only in 1934.
During the Great Patriotic War the city was largely destroyed, but already by 1948 122 industrial enterprises out of 137 were fully restored, and by 1958 the city of Voronezh reached the pre-war level of development and continued to grow.
The new geopolitical situation makes Voronezh an important scientific, industrial, educational and cultural center of the southern part of Russia.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
The Voronezh oblast is located in the central zone of the European part of Russia, about 600 km. south of Moscow and is the largest area of the Central Black Earth region. The region is located in the Moscow time zone in the forest-steppe natural zone.
The highest altitude in the Voronezh region is situated in Nizhnedevitsky area and is 268 meters above sea level. The lowest elevation in the Voronezh oblast is near Belaya Gorka village(55 meters above sea level).
The climate in the region is temperate continental with an average temperature from +5,0 ° C in the north to +6,5 ° C in the south.
738 lakes and 2,408 ponds are located in the oblast, with 1,343 rivers longer than 10 km. The most important ain river is Don, 530 of its 1,870 km flow through the area, forming a pool of 422,000 km².
The main resource of the area are common as well as deep and fertile black soil, which occupy most part of the region. Mineral resources base of the Voronezh region is represented by deposits of nonmetallic raw materials, mainly construction materials (sand, clay, chalk, granite, cement raw materials, ocher, limestone, sandstone), especially in western and southern parts of the region. On the territory of Semilukskyi, Khokholskiy and Nizhnedevitsky districts there are reserves of phosphorite. The region has virtually unlimited reserves of chalk.
According to the economic structure the Voronezh oblast can be described asindustrially-agrarian. Industrial sector is dominated by mechanical engineering, electric power, chemical industry and processing industry of agricultural products. Industry in the region specializes in the manufacture of machine tools, shovels, metal bridge structures, forging and mining equipment, electronic equipment (including televisions), passenger aircraftairbuses, synthetic rubber and tires, refractory products, sugar, oil mills, fat and meat products. In the region there is a development of underground mineral waters.
The Voronezh oblast is a major supplier of agricultural production: it produces grain (mainly wheat), sugar beets, sunflowers and other industrial crops, potatoes and vegetables. On the whole the profile of agriculture is sugar beet crops with sunflower and grain crops, dairy and beef cattle, pigs and sheep.
The following transport path pass through the Voronezh oblast:
• The federal highway E 115-M4 "Moscow-Rostov-on-Don
• The federal highway E 119-M6 "Moscow-Astrakhan
• the E 38-A144 Kursk-Saratov
• Route R193, R194
There are railways in the Voronezh oblast that belong to JSC “Russian railroads”, the South-Eastern Railway. The main water arteries of the area - the Don and the Khoper rivers.
Places of interest:
• Belogorsky caves
• The castle of Princess Olga of Oldenburg
• The house-museum of Dmitry Venevitinov
• Natural History and Archaeological Museum-Reserve "Divnogorie"
• National Archaeological Museum-Reserve "Kostenki"
• Peter Kazmin (1892-1964) -a folklorist, artistic director of the choir, People's Artist of the USSR (1961)
• Nikolai Vorvulyov (1917-1967) – an opera singer, People's Artist of the USSR (1956)
• Russian poets AV Koltsov (1809-1842) and Igor Nikitin (1824-1861)