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Bryansk Region

Estate of TyutchevBedroom of TyutchevPochepBryansk region

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Bryansk Region

Federal District: The Central Federal District

Area: 34 857 km2
Population: 1 299 700 persons.

Emblem of Bryansk region
Emblem of Bryansk region

Flag of Bryansk region
Flag of Bryansk region



Description

Bryansk Oblast is the subject of the Russian Federation.

The administrative center is Bryansk.

Bryansk Oblast was separated as a certain region by the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 5, 1944.

It borders Smolensk Oblast in the north, Gomel Oblast and Mogilev Oblast of Belarus in the west, Kaluga Oblast and Orel Oblast in the east, and Kursk Oblast, Chernigov and Sumy Oblasts of Ukraine in the south.

The population is 1299.7 thousand people (2009). Population density is 37.2 people/km² (2009), the proportion of urban population is 68.5% (2009).

There are 289 municipalities in the Oblast, including 27 municipal districts, 6 urban districts, 31 urban settlements, 225 rural settlements.

History

Anciently, Slavic tribes inhabited Bryansk's territory. In IX-XI centuries the hyperboreans have lived along the banks of Desna, and the vyatiches have lived in the wooded water shed of  Desna and Oka. In XII—XIII centuries Bryansk Oblast was part of Chernigov, and then the Novgorod-Seversk duchies. After the destruction of Chernigov by the Mongol-tatars in 1246, the Duchy of  Bryansk was formed. Since 1354 Bryansk's territory was under the dominion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the beginning of XVI century (under agreement in 1503) the region was merged in Muscovy and became its south-west outpost in the fight against Lithuania, Poland and the Crimean Khanate.

In XVII—XVIII centuries the Oblast's buoyancy of economy has been started. In XVIII century manufacturing industry was appeared. Since the second half of XVIII century many parts of Bryansk Oblast belonged to the Hetman Kirill Razumovskiy, who made there a great building. At the end of XVIII century manufacturer Maltsov I.V., based on local sand and fire-wood a number of glass factories, extensively developed factory business. Shortly before the Revolution of 1917 Bryansk Oblast was called Bryansk governorate (the part of present Bryansk Oblast was merged in the Chernigov governorate).

After the revolution, Bryansk governorate was established on April 1, 1920.

In August—October 1941, the region was occupied by Nazi troops. Since first days of the occupation the fight against intruders has taken mass format of nationwide movement, guerrilla forces of. Kovpak S.A, Fedorov A,  Saburov A.N were formed there. After the liberation of territory (August—October 1943) great recovery efforts were executed.

Bryansk Oblast was separated as a certain region by the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 5, 1944.

Geographical location, natural resources, climate

During its long history, Bryansk was a part of Kiev and Chernigov duchy, Lithuanian state, Kiev and Orel governorates, Western (centered at Smolensk) and Orel Oblasts.

Bryansk Oblast is favorably situated in the central part of East European Plain in the watershed of two large river systems — Dnieper and Volga - that has substantial impact on the economic development. The administrative center – Bryansk - is located 379 km apart south-westerly from Moscow, and is the largest center of the non-humus belt of Russia.

The climate is moderately continental. The average temperature in January is -7 ... -9 ° C, the average temperature in July is +18 ... +20° C.

A large part of the Oblast (about a quarter of the total area) is wooded.  Woods are most diverse types - coniferous, mixed and broadleaved – and also forest-steppe.

Natural resources are deposits of sand, clay, chalk, marl, and other building materials, as well as phosphate.

Industry

A mechanical engineering and metal processing – a manufacturing of locomotives, freight cars, diesel engines, bulldozers and power graders, electrical steel, steel and iron casting – are developed.

A food industry is represented by meat and dairy products, canned food, tobacco, cereals. A consumer goods industry is represented by yarn, garment.

Agriculture

A livestock farming — dual purpose cattle breeding and poultry farming - is developed. The main specialty of crop production is growing of grain crops (rye, wheat), potatoes, flax, vegetables and sugar beet. Over the last years, a grain production is steadily increasing in the Oblast, seeds of sugar beet are expanded.  

Transport

Bryansk is large railway junction. Junctions with smaller meaning are Unecha and Navlya. The suburban traffic is development. Most of small lines of passenger service are closed; there are only “Zhukovka-Kletno”and “Novozybkov-Klimovo”. Most part of long distance trains pass through Navlya / Bryansk (the line of Moscow-Kiev). Most of rail lines are electrified, using alternating-current mains.

In connection with the frontier location, in Bryansk there are several large customs terminals.

Routes of federal significance M3 Moscow-Kiev, M13 Bryansk-Novozybkov-border of the Republic of Belarus (Kobrin) pass across the Oblast, the highway A141 Orel – Roslavl-Rudnya cross them near Bryansk.

There is the international airport "Bryansk" at 14 km from the administrative center.

Attractions

• Bryansk

• Bryansk State United Local History Museum

• Bryansk Literary Museum

• Preserve “Bryansk Forest”

• Museums of Bryansk

• Tikhvin Church

• House of Abrahamov

Famous natives

• Fyodor Tyutchev (November, 23 (December, 5), 1803 – July, 15 (27), 1873) is poet, diplomat

• Alexei Tolstoy (August, 24 (September, 5), 1817-September, 28 (October, 10), 1875) is poet

• Matvey Blanter (1903-1990) is composer, author of the song "Katyusha"

• Naum Gabo (August 5, 1890, Bryansk - August 23, 1977) is painter, sculptor, one of the leaders of the avant-garde

• Tatiana Nikolaeva (May, 4, 1924-November, 22, 1993) is pianist, composer, National Artist of USSR

• Vasily Shandybin (b. 1941) is politician