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Belgorod Region

Smolensky CathedralVideopanorama of  Belgorod regionMuseum of nation cultureHolkovsky cave monastery

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Belgorod Region

Federal District: The Central Federal District

Area: 27 134 km2
Population: 1 519 140 persons.

Emblem of Belgorod region
Emblem of Belgorod region

Flag of Belgorod region
Flag of Belgorod region



Description

Belgorod Oblast is the subject of the Russian Federation.

The administrative center is Belgorod.

In the current boundaries Belgorod Oblast has existed since January 6,1954.

It borders Luhansk, Kharkiv and Sumy Oblasts of Ukraine in the south and west, Kursk Oblast in the north and north-west, Voronezh Oblast in the east.  

The population is 519.14 million people (2009), including urban population — 66.6%. The population density is 56.1 persons per 1 km².

The oblast comprises 19 districts, 3 cities of oblast subordination, and 25 urban and 260 village settlements.

History

Belgorod Oblast is one of the youngest ones in Russia. It was founded January 6,1954, but the history of Belgorod stretches back into antiquity.

Donetsk-Oskol forest-steppe (present-day that is territory of Belgorod Oblast) has played an important role in the defense of the country from the raids of Crimean Tatars.

Since 1571 the guard service has begun to operate for combating Crimean overruns into Donetsk-Oskol forest-steppe. The first three fortress - Belgorod, Oskol (Old) and Valuiki - were built for indicating of the borders between the Tsardom of Russian and  the Crimean Khanate in the late XVI century.

In 1708—1727, the territory of modern Belgorod Oblast was part of  Kiev and Azov governorates.

In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was formed by the decision of the Supreme Privy Council. In 1777—1779, territory of the governorate was divided between the newly formed Tula, Slobodsko Ukrainian, Orel and Kursk vicegerencies. Later the territory of modern Belgorod Oblast was part of Voronezh and Kursk governorates (1796—1928). The processing industry and the producing of building materials have developed for local requirements inside this territory in the XIX century. Only chalk limestone plants have exported its products outside the Oblast. Korochanskiy district became all-Russian center of the producing and processing of garden berries products.

On September 4, 1911, Belgorod Bishop Josaphat (Gorlenko), deceased in 1754 and was buried in the crypt of the Belgorod Holy Trinity Cathedral, was canonized on the decision of the Most Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church, approved by the emperor.

The current territory of the Belgorod Oblast was merged in the newly formed Central Black Earth Oblast on May 14, 1928, and on June 13, 1934 Central Black Earth Oblast was divided into Voronezh and Kursk Oblasts. Commercial exploitation of iron deposits of Kyrsky magnetic anomaly has begun during the 1930s-40s.

During the Great Patriotic War in 1941—1945, the Oblast was occupied by German troops (1941—1943), emancipated during the Kursky Battle in 1943, at the time of which the tank battle in Prokhorovka took place, 1943.

Belgorod Oblast was formed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated 06.01.1954. It composed 23 districts of the Kursk and 8 districts of the Voronezh Oblasts.

In remembrance of the tank battle in Prokhorovka, at the Third Russian battlefield – in Prokhorovka — Victory Monument - Belfry - was built, and inside the village the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul was reared thanks to people's donations.

Geographical location, natural resources, climate

The Oblast is situated in south-western and southern slopes of the Central Russian Upland, in the basins of Dnieper and Don, in the forest-steppe zone at raised hilly steppe plain. Average height above sea level is 200 m. The highest point - 277 m above sea level — is located in Prokhorovka district. The lowest one is placed in the bottom of river valleys of Oskol and Seversky Donets.

The Oblast ranges low-water ones: rivers, lakes, marshes occupy about 1% of its territory. More than 480 small rivers and streams flow there. The largest of them are in the north-west - Seversky Donets, Vorskla, Vorsklytsya, Psyol, in the eastern districts — Oskol, Silent Pine, Black Kalitva, Valuya. The total length of river system is 5 000 km.

The climate is moderately continental, with a fairly mild winter with snowfalls and thaws, and long summer. The average yearly temperature varies from + 5.4 degrees in the north to + 6.7 degrees in the southeast. The coldest month is January. The frost-free period is 155—160 days.

The Oblast has more than 40 percent of discovered reserves of country's iron stones. Large deposits of bauxite, apatite, mineral underground water (radon and curative), numerous deposits of buildings materials (chalk, sand, clay, etc.) are discovered and explored varying degrees. Occurrences of gold, graphite, and rare metals are known. There are geographic prerequisites for the detection of platinum, hydrocarbons and other minerals. Lands of the Oblast are mainly humus.

Fauna of Belgorod Oblast of meadow-steppe and is variously estimated from 10 to 12 thousand species. Calciphilous zoological complexes, connected with chalk deposits, confer it a special uniqueness. About 10% of animal species are among those need a special protection, 47 species are included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. Inside Belgorod Oblast there are about 250 species of birds.

Industry

Belgorod Oblast plays a significant role in the producing of several types of industrial products: iron stone mining, production of rolled ferrous metal products, cement, slate, sugar, vegetable and animal oils.

Major industries are mining, engineering and metalworking, metallurgy, chemical industry (production of vitamins, detergents), producing of building materials, food industry (mainly sugar, dairy and meat industry).

Agriculture

Leading animal industries  are dairy and meat production, and pig farming, corn, sugar beet and sunflower growing. Poultry farming is developed. Cattle, pig and poultry farming are throughout extended, sheep farming is extended in the eastern regions.

Transport

The most important railways and highways of interstate meaning, connected Moscow with south regions of Russia and with Ukraine, including the federal highway M-2 "Crimea" and the railway line “Moscow-Kharkov-Sevastopol” pass across Belgorod Oblast. The length in use of public railway tracks is 694.6 km, length of paved roads (including departmental) is 8.5 thousand km, or 87.7% of the total length.

Attractions

 • Holy Trinity Holkovsky Cave Monastery

• Museum-Diorama "The Battle of Kursk. Belgorod vector"

 • Military-Historical Open-air Museum "Field of Prokhorovka"

 • Grayvoronsky District

 • «Oak of Bohdan Khmelnytsky"

 Famous natives

-        Vladimir Basov (1923-1987) - film director and actor, People's Artist of USSR (1983)

-        Nikolai Vatutin (1901-1944) - General of the Army, Hero of the Soviet Union, distinguished  Soviet military commander

-        Mikhail Shchepkin -  outstanding Russian actor

-        Stepan Degtyarev  - composer

-        Gavriil Lomakin  - composer

-        Eroshenko Vasily – writer

-        Ghessen Arnold – writer

-        Vladimir Shukhov - outstanding design engineer

Phones for communication in emergencies

Common telephone of firefighters and rescue workers in Belgorod Oblast – 010

Common rescue service in Belgorod Oblast – 112

Police in Belgorod Oblast – 020

Ambulance in Belgorod Oblast – 030

Emergency gas service in Belgorod Oblast – 040

Sources of information on tourism opportunities in the Oblast

www.belregion.ru

www.beladm.ru

Territorial bodies of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia

State Institution of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia in Belgorod Oblast:

308015 Belgorod, Slavy avenue, 102

Telephone: (4722) 32-12-00

State Institution of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia in Belgorod Oblast:

308017 Belgorod, Volchanskaya Street, 163

Telephone: (4722) 30-66-05