The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Far Eastern Federal District
Area: 361 913 km2
Population: 864 500 persons.
Coat of arms of Amur Oblast
Flag of Amur Oblast
Amur Oblast is a subject of the Russian Federation.
Administrative center: city of Blagoveshchensk founded in 1856.
The oblast was established on October 20, 1932.
The oblast shares its border with Yakutia in the north, Khabarovsk Krai in the east, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the south-east, China in the south, and Zabaykalsky Krai in the west. Population: 864,500 (2009 Census). Population density: 2.4/km² (2009 Census), proportion of urban population: 65.4% (2009 Census).
In Amur Oblast there are 9 cities, 21 urban-type settlements (villages), 289 rural administrations, only 608 villages, of which 6 are neglected, the oblast is divided into 20 districts.
The first Russian explorers led by V.D. Poyarkov appeared in Amur Oblast in 1643—1644. In 1649, E.P. Khabarov, an explorer, founded the town of Albazin, that became the center of the Russian possessions on the Amur. However, in the late XVII century the lands along the Amur River were ceded to China by the Treaty of Nerchinsk. Only in the mid-XIX century Priamurye was peopled by Russians again. In 1854 "Muravyevsky runs" began on the initiative of N.N. Muravyev, the governor-general of Eastern Siberia. It was a migration of the Cossacks from Trans-Baikal to the Amur. Here the Cossacks established Amur Cossack Army. A new wave of immigrants was primarily comprised of the peasants from central Russia (since 1859). The implementation of Stolypins agrarian legislation after the 1905 revolution allowed resettling of another 120 thousand people to the Amur.
In the early XX century Amur railway played an important role in populating the area. After the October Revolution of 1917, from April till September 1918, it was known as Amur Socialist Republic. The rule of the Bolsheviks was toppled during the Rebellion of Czech Corps and handed over to Kolchak followers. After the defeat of Kolchak in April 1920, the Bolsheviks created a "buffer" state — the Far Eastern Republic (DVR) with its center in Chita — from Amur, Trans-Baikal, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, and Primorye Oblasts. DVR had existed for two years and in November 1922 joined RSFSR. On November 8, 1922 Amur Oblast was renamed into Amur Governorate and had existed as such until 1926. In January 1926, Amur Governorate was incorporated into Far Eastern Krai, which in 1938 was divided into Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais. Amur Oblast was merged with Khabarovsk Krai. In 1948, Amur Oblast was separated from Khabarovsk Krai as an independent area of RSFSR.
Geographical Position, Natural Resources, Climate
Allotments and elevated areas occupy 60%,and plains occupy 40% of the oblast’s territory. The former are located mainly in northern and central regions. Between the Zeya and Selemdzha Rivers in the west and Turana Ringe in the east lies Zeya-Bureya Plain, its southern part is called Middle Amur Lowland, where many round shallow pools are located. Between the Amur and Selemdzha Rivers in the south and Tukuringra-Soktahan-Dzhagdy Range in the north, the gentle Amur-Zeysky Plain elevating up to 300-500m is located. In its eastern part there are low hills here and there. The river-valleys are deeper. The western area of the plain is made of sandy clays and sands that’s why there are many ravines here, especially on the fringes.
In the middle and northern parts of the oblast there are block and blockwave ridges. All of them are low or of medium height with chiselly stream gravel on the tops. The highest elevation within the oblast is 2,312 m, in the east of Stanovoy Range. The Range stretches for 800 km along the northern border in several parallel chains. The slopes are crossed by numerous river-valleys and are wooded up to a height of 1 200m, dwarf Siberian pine grows at higher elevations. To the east of the Zeya’s head, a branch detached from Stanovoy Range turns to the south-east – this is Dzhugdyr Range. Farther to the south, a long chain of medium-height ridges Janka-Tukuringra-Soktahan-Dzhagdy stretches for 500km along Stanovoy Range. The highest peak of Tukuringra Range is 1,604m.
Between Stanovoy Range and Soktazhan-Dzhagdy Range an intermountain lake-swamp Upper Zeya Plain is situated. On the eastern edge of the area there are Selemdzhinsky, Yam-Alin, Aesop, and Turana Ranges. Only south-western branches of Burein Rangeare situated in Amur Oblast. In the west of the oblast there are many small mountain ranges, such as Chernyshev, North and South Dyryndinsky, Chelbaus, Urushinsky, Iltivus.
The climate is influenced by monsoons. Winter is cold and dry, with little snow, serene. The average January temperature ranges from-24C in the south to -33C in the north. Summer is hot (in the south), and rainy. The average July temperature ranges from +21 C in the south to +18 C in the north. The level of precipitation is about 850mm per year. Permafrost is widespread. Crop season is 126—171 days.
Amur Oblast has considerable reserves of gold, brown and hard coal, iron ore, quartz sand, kaolin, limestone, high-melting clay, tuff, quartzite. There are mineral springs.
The leading industries are mining (gold, coal), wood and wood processing, machine-building and metalworking. The industrial enterprises of the oblast produce EOT and truck cranes, equipment for mining, fishing seiners, machines for livestock and fodder production, electric meters, high-voltage equipment. The basis for electrical energy industry is provided by Zeya hydroelectric power station and Raichikhinsk regional power station.
The leading fields of agriculture are grain farming and meat and dairy products, soybeans. In the north of the oblast deer farming prevails, in south-east and in the middle part beekeeping is developed, in the forest range fur trapping is the mail industry, the north is the center for animal farming. The oblast is a leader in soybean production. It produces 60-65% of Russia's national output of soybean.
Monument Burning Mountains
Amur -Black Dragon’s River
Museum of Upper Econ Village
State Nature Reserve Norsky
Zeya State Nature Reserve
Khinganskiy State Nature Reserve
• Leonid Gaidai(1923—1993) — actor, director, People's Artist of the USSR (1989)
• Oleg Strizhenov (b. 1929) — Soviet and Russian film and theater actor, People's Artist of the USSR (1988)