The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The North-Western Federal District
Area: 215,7 km2
Population: 420 500 persons.
Kaliningrad is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Kaliningrad region.
The population is 420 500 people (2009).
Kaliningrad is a special city among Russian cities. For seven centuries it was a German city, capital of East Prussia, and only after the Second World War the city and the region have joined the USSR. This explains the European development of the city, the saturation of unique architectural monuments. A local nature and proximity to the sea have created stunning landscape views.
The total area is about 215.7 km².
Koenigsberg was founded as a castle by the German Teutonic Knights on the ground of Prussian fortress Tuangste (Tvangste) in January 1255. Originally the castle was made of wood, but in 1257 began construction of the stone, or rather brick castle.
The castle was named by the Knights the "Royal Mountain" in honor of their ally, the Czech King Premysl Ottokar The Second. In the XVI century in Königsberg Prussians and Lithuanians still constituted about 20% of the population.
The first mention of the construction of the Cathedral is dated 1333. In 1525 the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Albert converted the theocratic state into secular Prussian Duchy of Poland and he became Duke.
The capital of the new state was Königsberg. Since the XVI century the city became an important center of Lithuanian culture.
In the XIX century, the town has grown considerably. By the end of World War II, in August 1944, the city of Konigsberg was heavily damaged by British bombers in Operation Nemesis.
According to the Potsdam Conference the northern part of the German province of East Prussia with its capital - Koenigsberg was temporarily transferred to the Soviet Union. Later, at the action of sign a border treaty Kaliningrad region is fully recognized a possession of the Soviet Union. Here remain only 20,000 of 370,000 German citizens who lived there before the war.
Instead, the city had been resettled by the Soviet citizens. On July 4, 1946 after the death of the elder-Union M.I. Kalinin in his honor Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad. Since 1991, the city is open for international cooperation with foreign countries, primarily in Germany and Poland, in business, culture and education.
Today in the city are functioning a lot of foreign institutions that provide the necessary city information, administrative and visa support.
The city is situated on both banks of the river Pregolya near its confluence with the Gulf of Kaliningrad Baltic Sea. The terrain is flat, but the northern part of the city is situated on a high bank.
The city has many hydrographic objects: Ponds Nizhny, Verkhny, Poplavok, Lake Lesnoe, Pond Letny, ponds in the South Park, on Guardeisky avenue and other, many streams (the largest — the current from the Verkhny Pond in Pregolya Blue Stream).
Kaliningrad is a large center of mechanical engineering, the development of metallurgy, light industry and printing industry.
Kaliningrad is a site roads. Major roads that are suitable to the city:
- A229 Kaliningrad — Chernyakhovsk — Lithuanian border (in Minsk). Part E 28 and E 77.
- A194 Kaliningrad — Ladushkin — Mamonovo — Polish border (in Elblag). Part E 28 and E 77.
- Kaliningrad — Polessk — Bolshakovo (hereinafter in Svetlogorsk)
- Kaliningrad — Zelenogradsk (hereinafter referred to spit on the Nida and Klaipeda)
- Kaliningrad — Pereslavskoe — Svetlogorsk
- Kaliningrad — Primorsk — Baltiisk
- Kaliningrad — Bagrationovsk — Polish border (referred to in Olsztyn)
In Kaliningrad is located the westernmost and the only ice-free port of Russia and the Baltic states on the Baltic Sea. Freight and passenger ferries connect Kaliningrad and Kaliningrad outport Baltiysk with St. Petersburg, the ports of Germany and Sweden.
Königsberg Airport Devau, which opened in 1919, became one of the first civil airports in the world and first in Germany. After the war, the airport was used for domestic flights and 70's. In the 50es, in 24 kilometers from Kaliningrad on the basis of a military airfield was built a new airport Khrabrovo. Currently the airport is being renovated.
Main passenger railway station of the city is Kaliningrad passenger, to which the main railway station of the city and region — Uzhny Station. This station serves both for commuter and long-distance trains. Kaliningrad-Severny station (Northern station) serves for linking Kaliningrad with the seaside resorts of Zelenograd, Svetlogorsk and Pioneer, as well as Sovetsk.
Regular bus routes connect Kaliningrad and Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland and Germany. Urban public transport is represented by trams, trolleybuses, buses and taxis. As for May 2010 in the city are three tram routes and five trolleybus routes.
- Kaliningrad Zoo
- Amber Museum
- Museum of World Ocean
- Cathedral City gate number 3 (Zakhaymskie)
- City gate number 2 (Brandenburg)
- Monument of Friedrich Schiller
- Fortress of Frederick the Great (Barracks "Crown")
- Goldbach, Christian is a mathematician, the chief scientific secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- Kant, Immanuel was German philosopher, founder of German classical philosophy Hoffmann
- Ernst Theodor Amadeus was a German romantic writer, composer and artist