The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Tatarstan
Federal District: The Privolzhsky Federal District
Area: 613 km2
Population: 1 138 823 persons.
Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan)
Federal District: Volga Federal District
Total area: 613 km2
Kazan is a city of the Russian Federation, the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, the largest city of the Volga economic region. The Kazan Kremlin which is a World Heritage Site and a millenarian history make Kazan one of the most visited cities of Russia and the world. The city brands itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia.
Founded in 1005.
The population is approximately 1.2 mln people.
Kazan was founded as an outpost at the northern boundaries of Volgian Bulgaria. After the Tatar Invasion, the territory of Volgian Bulgaria was incorporated into the state of the Golden Horde established by the Tatars.
In the XIII-XIV centuries Kazan grew and became an important commercial and political centre of the Golden Horde. The advantageous geographical position on the crossing of big trade routes connecting the East with the West favoured the growth of the city.
Kazan was being mentioned in the Russian chronicles since XIV-XV centuries.
In 1438, with the collapse of the Golden Horde, the city was proclaimed the capital of the Khanate of Kazan. The conflicts with Muscovy ongoing from the times of Volgian Bulgaria (IX-X centuries) after two unsuccessful attempts led to the seizure of Kazan by the troops of Ivan the Terrible in 1552 with further destruction of the greater part of the city and massacre of the majority of the population.
In 1556 the construction of a new white-stone Kremlin was begun, 7 thousand Russians were moved into the abandoned city. By order of Ivan the Terrible the entire settlements were moved there from different cities of Russia. In 1708 Kazan became the capital city of the Kazan Governorate. From the 1660s the city design was regulated, there appeared the first wooden pavements and bridges over Bulak and Kazanka. The city became an educational and cultural centre of the Volga region: in 1758 the first provincial gymnasia in Russia, in 1771 - the first madrasah, and in 1791 the first permanent theatre were opened in Kazan. The establishment of Kazan University in 1804 - the third in Russia - was an important event.
The city faced a great shock in the XX century. Kazan became one of the revolutionary centres, in 1918, during the Civil War, it was the focal point of heavy fighting.
On 27 December 1920 the Decree on the establishment of the Tatar Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic with its capital in Kazan was passed. During the Great Patriotic War large plants were evacuated to Kazan (including Moscow Aircraft Factory named after S. P. Gorbunov, Voronezh Engine-Building Works).
In the 1990s Kazan became one of the financial and political centres of the country.
The industrial complex of Kazan is represented by the machine-building, chemical and petrochemical branches, light and food industry.
Trolleybus is the most popular public transportation means. There function 91 bus services with the total mileage of 1918 km. After the adoption of a new bus traffic plan the minibus taxis (mostly presented by the ПАЗ make of car) were abolished.
An Automatic Fare Collection based on a single chip card functions at all modes of transportation.
Kazan metropolitan as of 2010 comprises the Central line with the total mileage of 8.4 km and 6 stations. The working hours are from 6 a.m. till 11 p.m., the minimum headway between consecutive trains is 7 minutes. The fare system presupposes the usage of chip coins and chip cards.
A federal highway Volga (M7 E 22 Moscow - Vladimir - Nizhny Novgorod - Kazan - Ufa) and other federal highways run thought the city:
- P241 Kazan - Buinsk - Ulyanovsk
- P239 Kazan - Orenburg
- P242 Kazan - Arsk - Malmyzh - Kilmez - Igra
Bus services connect Kazan with all the cities of the Republic of Tatarstan and with the neighbouring republics and oblasts as well. Kazansky Railway Terminal serves 36 pairs of trains including 13 of local form.
Moreover, there are 19 railway stations and roadside stops within the city: VRD (ВРД), Yudino, New Arakchino, Old Arakchino, Lagernaya, Admiralty Sloboda, Vakhitovo, Ametievo, Ometievo, Novatorov, Kompressorny, Derbyshki, "804 km", "807 km", Kinderi, "787 km", Levchenko, Bosstanie, "793 km", "795 km".
The main end points of Kazan electrical trains are Nizhny Novgorod, Kanash, Arsk, Vyatskie Polyany, Izhevsk, Volzhsk, Zeleny Dol. There are also diesel-powered trains and road-rail buses to Buinsk (Bua Station) and Yoshkar-Ola. The international airport "Kazan" serves flights in 39 directions including 14 foreign ones.
The riverside station serves the passengers of inter-city cruise ships as well as suburban lines - to Kamskoe Ustye (the estuary of the Kama), Tetyushi, Bolgar, Pechishchi, Sviyazhsk, and Sadovaya.
- Kazan Kremlin ensemble
- Baumana Street
- Volga Federal University
- Old-Tatar Sloboda territory
- Peter-and-Paul's Cathedral
Unified rescue service - 01
EMERCOM Police — 02
Medical Ambulance — 03
Gas Leaks — 04
Unified rescue service - 09
Acquisition Sources for Regional Tourist Opportunities
Ministry of the Republic of Tatarstan for Youth Affairs, Sport and Tourism:
Kazan, Peterburgskaya St., 12
Telephone: (843) 222-8101, (843) 222-8179
Committee of External Communications and Tourism of Kazan Executive Committee:
Kazan, Kremlyovskaya St., 2 A
Telephone: (843) 292-6092, (843) 292-6121 Fax: (843) 292-9672
Tourism information centre in Kazan:
Kazan, Kremlyovskaya St., 15/25
Telephone: (843) 292-9777 Fax: (843) 292-3010