The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Southern Federal District
Area: 305 km2
Population: 231 200 persons.
Grozny — a city in the North Caucasus, in the south of Russia, the capital of Chechnya – the republic of warlike mountaineers and lush natural beauty of the mountains
Founded in 1818, it became a city on December 30, 1869.
Population is about 300 000 people.
The area is 305 km².
A. P. Ermolov, Commander of the Caucasian Army, came to our region in 1816. He decided to construct a fortress. A foundation stone was laid on June 22, 1818, at the highest point of the Sunzha River bank which was not flooded during spring and autumn river overflowing. The construction was completed in October of the current year. According to the remained sources that day was cold; the sky was grey in the morning. Heavy clouds were slowly moving over the Khankala Gorge, almost touching the tops of mighty trees. The fortress was founded on a territory of four, previously removed, Chechen auls (mountain village). According to some reports, more than 1.000 people lived in those auls.
The fortress had a shape of a regular sexangle surrounded by a deep moat. The first residents of the fortress, of course, were military men. However, soon new settlements quickly appeared around the fortress, and married soldiers and later merchants settled in areas adjacent to the fortress.
The Groznaya Fortress. It became the origin for many poets. Here, in the Groznaya Fortress A.S. Griboyedov wrote his first lines of the immortal poem "Woe from Wit". Here, poet Alexander Polezhaev, surgeon Pirogov, Decembrist Bestuzhev-Marly and painter Aivazovsky found their shelter. French writer Alexandre Dumas also visited our region.
By 1870, the fortress and the surrounding settlements had 4000 residents; there were two primary schools for 136 pupils, 4 churches and 28 taverns. Artisanal oil production was launched. There was a guest house, a whole section of shops, a post office with a postal unit, a regimental club and a city park with a dance floor.
In the summer of 1862, P. K. Uslar, famous Russian scientist, organized a school in the Groznaya Fortress to educate the Chechens and 25 boys were selected for that purpose. At the same time the grammar of the Chechen language was in the process of formation.
On December 30, 1869, Tsar Alexander I signed an individual decree submitted to the Senate, on the transformation of the administrative establishments in Kuban and Terek oblasts. "I order to divide Terek Oblast into seven districts: Georgievsk, Vladikavkaz, Kizlyar, Grozny, Argun, Vedensk and Khasavyurtovsk and appoint centers of the districts for the following cities: Gergievsk, Vladikavkaz, Groznaya Fortress and for fortifications: Veden, Shatoi, Kizlyar and Khasav-Yurt fortification; moreover, the Groznaya Fortress shall be renamed in the city ... ". But the residents of Grozny had to wait another year before it officially became a city. Decree was published in early February 1870, and only on December 1, 1870, Grand Duke Michael, governor of the Caucasus, issued a circular order that put a new administrative arrangement of Terek Oblast into effect beginning from January 1, 1871. "Since that time, - as per the Circular Order, - the Groznaya Fortress shall be renamed in the city with an introduction of a simplified public administration within it". As time went on, Grozny expanded and developed.
In mid-May 1871, during the public meeting, the city committee was elected which comprised a mayor, a public and three members. The first elections for City Council were held only in 1895. Beginning from 1870, a huge number of immigrants came to Grozny, especially from the central regions of Russia, being attracted by one of the benefits provided to the city: during the first five years, all newly ascribed citizens should be allocated a 400 square yards land lot for building purposes.
In 1910 the fortress, being no longer needed, was handed over to the city authorities by the military department, and then the Ataman of Terek Oblast reconstructed the fortress barracks into the District Jail of Grozny.
On November 30, 1922 the city became a center of Chechen Autonomous Oblast (selected from the Mountain ASSR), on January 15, 1934, it became Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast which on December 5, 1936, was transformed into the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
On August 24, 1942, the city was assaulted by the Nazis. Residents of Grozny together with the forces of the Soviet Army defended their city.
On March 7, 1944, due to deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, the city became a center of Grozny District of Stavropol Krai, but on March 22, 1944, it again received a status of the center of a separate region - of Grozny Oblast, and from January 1957, after the rehabilitation of the Chechens and Ingush received a status of the capital of the reestablished Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
On October 1, 1991, Nationwide Congress of the Chechen people under the leadership of Johar Dudayev, declared separation of the Chechen-Ingush Repblic into the sovereign Chechen Republic (capital — Grozny) and the Ingush Republic within the RSFSR.
The basic industry of Grozny is oil. Manufacturing engineering and construction materials production are also developed.
There is a developed transport network in Grozny: about 17 local bus routes, more than 30 suburban and intercity routes (Astrakhan, Vladikavkaz, Volgograd, Komsomolsk, Krasnodar, Maikop, Mineral Waters, Makhachkala, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol, Moscow and Elista).
Trolleybus and tram transport communication is under restoration.
The Grozny Airport is in operation .
• Mosque named after Akhmat-Khadzhy Kadyrov (Serdtse Chechni)
• Avenue named after V. V. Putin
• Memorial of Fame
• Stadium named after A. A. Kadyrov
• Grozny-City Coplex
• Alexander Akimovich Karaev — Hero of the Soviet Union (February 23, 1945), Guard Captain
• Ambulance (8712) 22-3087, 03 (for mobile phones calling - 033)
• Firefighting department (8712) 33-2251, 01 (for mobile phones calling - 011)
• Call Center of the Ministry of the Interior of the Chechen Republic (8712) 22-32-33, 02 (for mobile phones calling - 022)
Sources of Tourism Information in the Region
Tour-Ex State Unitary Enterprise for Tourism and Excursions:
The Chechen Republic, Grozny, Stakhanovtsev Str., 5 A
Tel. (8712) 22-63-80 Fax (8712) 22-63-79