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VoronezhThe building of Destroyed during the war, Children's HospitalVoronezh

The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Voronezh Region

Federal District: The Central Federal District

Area: 590,43 km2
Population: 928 505 persons.


Voronezh is a city in the European part of Russia, administrative center of Voronezh Region.

It was founded in 1585.

The area of the city is 590.43 sq. km

The population is 928 505 people (2010).


According to archaeological excavations, the first settlements on the place, where the Voronezh region is now, appeared about 30 000 years ago near the village of Kostenki on the right bank of the Don.

For many centuries the region was the southern outpost of the Russian state, which protected it from the Khazars, Pechenegs and Polovtsians. Hundreds of years later, the region became the border once again, but its southern borders with the independent Ukraine are not a shield from attacks, it’s the gates of friendship and a cooperation corridor.

The official birth of Voronezh was in 1585, when a fortress was erected on the site of ancient settlements. The second birth the city experienced in 1696, when the first Russian fleet that surprised Europe and frightened Asia, was built on the Voronezh shipyard by order of Peter I.

Tsar Peter was blessed for the construction of the fleet and the founding of St. Petersburg by his close friend and spiritual mentor, the first bishop of Voronezh St. Mitrophan.

Becoming the center of Russian shipbuilding, Voronezh became the largest city with specialized factories, mills and manufactories, and workshops. For some time Voronezh actually played the role of the capital. It was the center of the major events, there lived Tsar Peter the Great and his court, there were representations of European countries: diplomats, generals, ship masters. In Voronezh, as well as in Moscow, there was a German settlement.

In 1711, Voronezh became the administrative center of the Azov province. In 1725, this province was named Voronezhskaya, its territory stretched as far as the Volga in the north-east and as far as the Sea of Azov coast in the south.

In 1928, Voronezh became the center of the Central Black Earth region, bringing together the Voronezh, Tambov, Kursk and Orel province.

On May 6, 1975 Voronezh was awarded with the order of the World War of the I level for their courage and heroism during the Great Patriotic War and labor successes.

Geographical position

The city of Voronezh is situated on the border of the Central Russian Upland and Oka-Don Plain. The city is located in the south of the Central Russian forest-steppe. Voronezh is located on the left and right banks of the Voronezh River, in 8,5 km from its confluence with the Don River, in 587 km to the south-southeast from Moscow. Voronezh Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the Central Black Earth region (70 km ²).


The leading industries in Voronezh are engineering and metalworking, light industry and food industry, chemical, petrochemical and electronic industries.


Voronezh is a major transport hub, the transport system of which consists of systems of air traffic, rail and road transport.

In the modern city there are two railway stations at railway stages Voronezh I and Voronezh II Kursk.

The highway M4 Don (on the bypass road) and A144, route of regional importance of the Kursk—Voronezh—Saratov, run through Voronezh. There are two bus stations and an auto station: Central Bus Station, Bus Station Levoberezhniy and the south-western auto station.

The Voronezh airport is located in 5 km from the city near the village of Chertovicy. Since 1995, the airport has the status of "international". From it there are daily flights to Moscow, to other Russian cities and the world.

Urban transport in the city is represented by buses, trolley buses and minibuses. According to a new master plan of the city, it’s planned to create light-rail. At the moment, Voronezh is the largest city in Russia and Europe, where there is no urban rail transport.


  1. Voronezh State Puppet Theatre "Shute"
  2. Voronezh State Nature Reserve
  3. Bogoyavlenskaya Church
  4. Church of Archangel Michael
  5. St. Nicholas Church
  6. Lutheran Church
  7. Ensemble of the Church of Pokrov
  8. Cathedral of Alexis, Metropolitan of Moscow
  9. Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
  10. Manor of Tulinov-Vigel

Famous People

  • Andrei Platonov — Russian and Soviet writer, novelist, one of the most distinctive in style and language of Russian writers of the first half of the XX century
  • Ivan Bunin — Russian writer, poet, honorary academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1909), winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1933
  • Ivan Nikitin (1824—1861) — A famous Russian poet
  • Nikolai Burdenko (1876—1946) — distinguished Soviet surgeon, one of the founders of neurosurgery, Academician, Honored Scientist of the RSFSR, State Prize winner
  • Samuil Marshak — a distinguished Soviet poet
  • Aleksey Koltsov — the famous Russian poet