The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 230 km2
Population: 409,2 persons.
Bryansk is a city in the Russian Federation, the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast and Bryansk region.
It was founded in 985.
The population is 409.2 people (2010).
The city's area is 230 sq. km.
985year is considered as nominal year of Bryansk foundation. The settlement in place of future Bryansk played the role of the terminal and support base during Kiev Knyazh Vladimir's campaigns against the Khazars and Volgian Tatars.
The city's name is descended from the Old Russian word “Dbryansk”, formed from the word “dibr” ("cliff, ditch, shaggy mountain slope").
Archaeological facts, obtained during the diggings of the old town on Chashin burial mound in 1976-1979, show that the city on the territory of present Bryansk was emerged in the last quarter of X century. Based on these and other data, 985 year is considered as nominal year of Bryansk foundation.
Ancient Bryansk was a member of the Chernigov duchy. After the destruction of the duchy by the Mongol-Tatars specific Bryansk duchy was established in 1246. In 1356, Bryansk was occupied by Lithuanian prince Olgerd and attached to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1500, it was captured by Ivan III troops and attached to Muscovy. At the beginning of XVI century, the war with Poland broke out, during which Bryansk acted as a supporting base of Russian forces.
In 1607, the city was attacked twice by Lzhedmitry II. The first time the city was burned to not get "a thief", but by the end of year Bryansk was rebuilt almost from scratch.
Under Peter I the city was re-fortified. The dockyard has been placed on Desna shore, where ships of Bryansk fleet for a campaign against Turkey were built. In 1783, in Bryansk the arsenal for producing of siege and field artillery was based.
In 1709, the city became a part of Kiev governorate, and from 1778 Bryansk became a district town of Oryol governorate. In 1920—1929, Bryansk was the center of Bryansk governorate.
During the Great Patriotic War, from October 6, 1941, the city was occupied by German troops. On September 17, 1943 it was liberated by Soviet troops, since this date is celebrated as the Town Day. Guerrilla fighters of the total number to 60 thousand people were acted in forests of Bryansk.
On July 5, 1944, Bryansk Oblast was founded, and Bryansk became its administrative center.
The distance from Moscow is 384 km. Bryansk is situated on both banks of Desna at inflowing of Bolva and Snezhet.
Bryansk's major industries are engineering and metalworking. Chemical, woodworking, pulp and paper industries, instrument making are also well-developed.
Bryansk — a large railway junction. The lines to Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Gomel, Smolensk, Orel and Vyazma, along which passengers and freight traffics are carried, pass across the city.
The junction of strategic and international highways is M3 Moscow — Kiev, M13 Bryansk — Novozybkov — the border of the Republic of Belarus — (Kobrin), A141 Orel — Roslavl — Rudnia).
Petrol pipe "Druzhba", gas pipelines Dashava — Moscow, Shebelinka — Moscow (with a branch to Gomel) run through Bryansk.
In the city there is an international airport "Bryansk", railway station "Bryansk I», bus depot and bus station in Bezhitsa.
Passenger traffics are carried by taxi buses (more than 1400 buses on 57 routes), trolleybuses on 27 routes, buses (36 routes), as well as suburban electric trains and railcars.
- Tikhvin Church
- The ensemble of the Uspensky Monastery
- Pokrovsky Church
- Bryansk State United Local History Museum
- Bryansk Regional Art Museum
- Alexander Peresvet (?—1380) is hero of the Battle of Kulikovo
- Sergei Azarov (1915—1943) is Hero of the Soviet Union, a fighter pilot, Guard's senior lieutenant, deputy commander
- Viktor Afanasyev (1948) is Russian cosmonaut, colonel, Hero of the Soviet Union
- Naum Gabo (1890—1977) is Russian and American painter, sculptor, architect, art theorist, one of the leaders of the world's artistic avant-garde, one of the pioneers of kinetic art
- Leonid Dobuchin (1894—1936) is Russian writer
- Ilya Ivanovich (constructor) (1899—1967) is constructor of the Soviet artillery equipment
- Pavel Kamozin (1917—1983) is twice Hero of the Soviet Union, a fighter pilot, captain, squadron command officer
- Tatyana Nikolaeva (1924—1993) is pianist, composer, National Artist of USSR (1983)