The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Khakassia
Federal District: The Siberian Federal District
Area: 112,38 km2
Population: 163,4 persons.
Abakan — a city in Russia, the capital of the Republic of Khakassia.
Population: 163 400 people (2010).
Total area — 112.38 sq km.
Settlements on the site of today's city have appeared long ago. The Bronze Age settlements were located near the mouth of the Abakan River, in the 1st century BC a so-called "Li Lin Palace" was built.
In 1675 the Abakan fort was formed. This year Abakan celebrated a 335th anniversary of the first state building construction in the city, recorded in historical documents. Russian pioneers, who built and settled in this fort, became the first Abakanians. Therefore the year 1675 is remembered as the date of foundation of the first settlements on the territory of the city.
But the laying of the town of the Huns is dated to the 99 year BC. It means that Abakan can be 2100 years old.
According to the new state reform of management by "non-Russians", in 1822 the village of Ust-Abakan became an administrative center of the Kachin Steppe Duma. People began to build public buildings, a cottage industry occurred. Trade was especially successful. Merchants imported manufactured goods, alcohol, vodka, and exchanged it for furs and other types of hunting goods.
In the Soviet period Abakan passed four stages of development. It was the center of the county, district, an autonomous region, and, finally, the Republic. Its fate is closely intertwined with the political life of the country. On the 30th of April, 1931 the village of Ust-Abakan was renamed in Abakan city. It became the capital of Khakassia. Its population quadrupled. The city expanded its boundaries of the territory. In 1940 the city covered more than 20 square kilometers.
Many residents of Abakan fought during the Great Patriotic War. Abakan sent about 20,000 soldiers to the army in the field during the war. The famous 309th Infantry Division, which received honorary title "Piryatinskaya" in the battle for the Ukrainian city Piryatin, formed there. Since that period of time two sister cities — Piryatin and Abakan —have strong friendship till today.
After the war life in the city was enlivened. More attention was focused on industry. Due to the prospect of reaching the Trans-Siberian Main Line, there were great opportunities. In spring of 1958 construction of the road Abakan—Tayshet was announced to be the All-Union high-efficiency Komsomol construction project. Many glorious pages of heroic deeds of the Abakanians connected with the "route of courage".
By early 70s the construction of the Sayan-Shushenskaya hydro power plant started.
Abakan became one of the most promising industrial centers in Siberia, where it was economically advantageous to place large modern manufacturing. In the 80's Abakan occupied a leading position in Russia, according to the pace of development. Since August, 1990 Abakan became the capital of Khakassia ASSR, since 1991 — Khakassia SSR, in 1992 — the capital of Khakassia.
Abakan is located in the central part of Khakass-Minusinsk Basin, at an altitude of 250 m above sea level. Geographically the city is situated in the mouth of the Abakan River, a tributary of the Yenisei, 4 218 km to the east from Moscow and 406 km to the south from Krasnoyarsk.
Abakan industry is represented by enterprises of machine-building industry and energy
Abakan is connected with Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, Achinsk, Novokuznetsk, Taishet by the railway lines.
Federal highway M54 "Yenisei", from Krasnoyarsk to the Republic of Tuva to the state border, goes through Abakan. In addition, the route A161 Abakan—Ak-Dovurak begins in Abakan.
There is an airport "Abakan". The airport is located in the northern part of the city, near the city boundaries. It is connected with the city by buses and trolleybuses. It is the only airport in the region (Khakassia and south of the Krasnoyarsk Krai), which is able to accept almost all types of aircrafts.
- Stela “Lora”
- St. Nicholas Cathedral
- Holy Transfiguration Cathedral
- Architectural and park complex "Kind Angel of Peace"
- Park of topiary art
- Lermontov Republican Russian Theater of Drama
- Topanov Khakass National Theater of Drama
- Khakass State Variety Show “Chitigen”
- Yury Kuznetsov (b. 1946) — an actor
- Agafia Lykova — an oldreligious recluse