The Subject of the Russian Federation:
Federal District: The Central Federal District
Area: 1 081 km2
Population: 10 527 000 persons.
Emblem of of Moscow
Flag of Moscow
Moscow is -the capital of Russia, the administrative center of the Central Federal District and the Moscow region, one of the most beautiful cities in the world. According to the population, Moscow is the largest city in Europe and is ranked 7th in the world. In Moscow, there are about 11.7 million people (according to 2010). The city area is 1081 km ².
The division into districts
Moscow is divided into ten administrative districts, of which only one (Zelenograd) is completely located outside the Ring Road:
- Central Administrative District
- Northern Administrative District
- North-Eastern Administrative District
- Eastern Administrative District
- South-Eastern Administrative District
- Southern Administrative District
- South-Western Administrative District
- Western Administrative District
- North-Western Administrative District
- Zelenograd Administrative District
In turn, each district divided into regions, in all in Moscow there are 125 districts. Management of districts, is made by implement district, prefectures, regions — region council.
The first reliable historical mention of Moscow is considered an indication of the Ipatiev Chronicle on Saturday, April 4, 1147.
In the beginning of the XIII century, Moscow became the center of the principality for the first time. Under Ivan Kalita in Moscow there began a massive construction, appeared the first stone buildings.
In 1229, a white stone the Assumption and Archangel Cathedral were built. In 1365, Moscow was burnt down during the terrible fire of All Saints (named for the All Saints' Church, from which the fire has spread). The fire was not the first, before the fire Moscow burnt out in 1331, 1337, 1343 and 1354, respectively. After that, Prince Dmitry together with the Boyars decided to put a stone fortress. Since then, Moscow began to be called white stone city.
During the reign of Dmitry Donskoy Moscow withstood a series of clashes with their rivals - Prince of Tver and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then it took on the role of unifier of the Russian lands against the Mongols. In 1382, Khan Tokhtamysh took the city, subjected it to plunder and burn.
In the XV century, the city included the Kremlin, China Town, White City. By 1712 the Russian capital was moved to St. Petersburg, in 1728, returned to Moscow, and in 1730 again in St. Petersburg, but Moscow has remained the place of coronation of the Emperors.
Gradually, the Russian capital has become one of the largest cities in Europe. Here, for centuries was being formed the basis of an all-Russian culture, art, science centers. All that was to become the most important milestones in the development of city culture and country. In Moscow appeared the first university, newspaper and theater.
During the War of 1812, Moscow was severely damaged by the fire. After that, Moscow has fully recovered, was built The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. In Soviet times, Moscow again became the center of the state, that increased international political significance of the city. At the same time, the historic buildings have undergone a selective destruction.
In winter of 1941-1942, there was a famous battle of Moscow, where Soviet troops won the first-ever victory against Wehrmacht from the start of World War II. The onset of German Army Group "Center" near Moscow was halted.
In 1980, Moscow hosted XXII Summer Olympic Games. The most important features of the city over the centuries remain the same - the ring structure of Moscow, the city landscape, combining the hills, rivers, parks arrays. Harmonize with quiet streets and vibrant broad line prospectuses. Those who once visited Moscow come back again and again, discovering new facets of this beautiful city.
Geographical location, natural resources, climate
Moscow has many faces and always opens to every tourist our welcoming arms. Moscow is located in the center of the European Russia, between the Oka and Volga. The city is situated on both banks of the Moskva River in its middle reaches. The river is navigable and tourists can admire the beauty of the city on board of a luxury cruise ship.
In the city runs dozens of other rivers, the largest of which are the tributaries of Moscow, Skhodnya, Khimki, Presnya, Neglinnaya, Yauza , Nishenka (left), Setun, Kotlovka and Gorodnya (right). The rivers give the city a special atmosphere of romance. Moscow has long been built with the use of radial-ray layout. Thus, the old town consists of several coming from the streets and tourists are not afraid to get lost very easy to walk through the historic center of the capital.
Moscow is attractive in any season, but going on a journey you should be aware that the climate in Moscow is continental: extreme cold and scorching heat is rare, but at the same time the weather is relatively unstable.
The coldest month of the year is January (the average temperature of -7,5 ° C), during a wave of cold temperatures can fall below -20 ° C. The warmest month is July (average temperature of +18,4 ° C). On average, in summer there are 5-7 days with temperature +30 ° C and above. The highest temperature for the 130-year series of observations was noted on July 29, 2010 and it was +39,0 ° C, the lowest temperature was recorded on January 17, 1940, and reached -42,2 ° C.
In general, the industry takes a small percentage of the city's economy, however, Moscow was one of the most developed industrial production centers in the country. The main types of industry are: engineering, manufacturing machinery, shipbuilding, instrument making.
Moscow industrial enterprises are also a kind of attractions with their history and traditions. For example, the Second State Bearing Plant (on the bearings of which were put the stars of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Art Theatre swinging scene, the first Moscow metro escalator), confectionery factory "Red October" (where in 1994 a museum was opened) and "Rot-Front" (where in 1826 only prepared caramel and sweets), "Mikoyan meat processing plant" (more than 700 items of meat and meat products, production of 400 tonnes of products a day), etc.
In Moscow there is an extensive network of routes of buses, trolleybuses, trams, taxis, which carry more than 12 million passengers daily. Starting with the 90-es, the network taxis and Autoline has been greatly expanded, established many new routes to popular destinations. So Sheremetyevo airport can be reached from the metro station "River Station" and "Planernaya" in Domodedovo airport - from the metro station "Domodedovo". Fare for the trip in the city is from 15 to 25 rubles.
Essential for the city is metro. Moscow residents are increasingly using it because of the existing problems in the capital of "traffic jams" on urban freeways.
Moscow Metro is open from 5:25 to 01:00. Precisely at 1 am stop escalators for the entrance of passengers, all stations operate only on the output. On some holidays (Easter, City Day, New Year, etc.) the government of the city often decides to extend the operating time of the Moscow Metro (usually until 02:30 or 03:00). The average interval between trains (from the administration of the same composition prior to the next) is 2.5 minutes. At the stations, "Vystavochnaya" and "Mezhdunarodnaya" trains depart every 8 minutes. Residents of urban neighborhoods and suburbs, are not covered by the Moscow subway, using high-speed urban transport suburban electric trains (train) from the station.
At the beginning of 2010 the cost of a trip on the subway is 26 rubles. for a monorail — 26 rubles., in the taxi and buses — from 12 to 35 rubles. For the bus, trolley bus, tram — 24 rubles (By ticket, purchased in advance) and 28 rubles. (A ticket purchased from the driver). Electric train fare varies from 26 to 100 rubles depending on the distance from the capital.
In Moscow, there are 9 existing railway stations. Kursk Station serves two railway lines from Moscow (Kursk and Gorky), as the two main directions (Ryazan and Murom) serves Kazan Railway Station, the others — in one direction (the same name, except with the direction of Smolensk from Belosrussky station). High-speed trains, routes Aeroexpress (cost 100-200 rubles.) operate from the Kiev railway station to the airport "Vnukovo", Paveletskiy station to Domodedovo airport, from the Belarus station to the airport "Sheremetyevo". In future, those airports will be linked by rail from the International Business Center "Moscow City" . It is further assumed a conversion of railway lines, train type to the Sheremetyevo airport in the high-speed transportation system the busiest stations — Kursk, Kazan, Kiev, the least — Riga and Savyolovsky. The Ring Line connects almost all stations (except Riga and Savelovski). Three stations - Kazan, Leningrad, Yaroslavl are located near each other at Komsomolskaya Square — "an area of three stations".
Sheremetyevo Airport is the second largest in Russia, the base for "Aeroflot" and carries more than 60% of the volume of international traffic.
Domodedovo Airport is primarily for domestic flights. Regular flights to Domodedovo carries 80 companies, both Russian and foreign.
Vnukovo airport is now mainly used to perform charter and corporate flights, is the basis for such carriers as "Gazpromavia", "Atlant-Soyuz" ,"Alrosa", "Sky Express" and "Utair".
Bykovo airport is now almost exclusively a cargo airport "Ostafyevo" is used by Gazpromavia to meet corporate and regular flights.
Due to a system of channels Moscow since Soviet times has earned the name "port of five seas". From North and South River stations go cruise ships, linking Moscow and St. Petersburg, Astrakhan, Rostov-on-Don and other cities in Russia. Also can be transported on the Khimki Reservoir (ticket price is 200 rubles), the suburban lines. During navigation on the Moscow River are several routes of the river tram.
The only regularly working throughout the navigation (from mid-April to mid-November) route: Kiev Station — Novospassky bridge (open daily, the interval of motion is about 50 minutes):
* Kiev Station
* Vorobyovy Hills (800 m from the metro station " Vorobyovy Hills ")
* Frunze Embankment in 2009 boats at this dock does not stop
* Culture Park
* Crimean bridge (400 m from the metro station Park Kultury)
* Estrada Theatre (Great Stone Bridge) (Bersenevskaya on the waterfront, now cruise ships dock at this do not stop)
* Big Ustyinsky bridge (on the waterfront Moskvoretskaya)
* Novospassky bridge (750 m from the metro station "Proletarian")
In 2010, the price of a ticket on the route of the Kiev railway station — Novospassky bridge is 400 rubles for adults and 150 — for seniors and students.
Moscow is one of the biggest tourist centers. The Muscovites are friendly and hospitable. They are happy to help you find the place you are interested. And of course, Moscow is human destiny. A list of the great Muscovites is huge.
Here are some of them.
- Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy — Grand Prince of Moscow and Vladimir, who defeated the Golden Horde
- Peter I the Great — Tsar of Moscow of the Romanov dynasty and the first Emperor of Russia
- Ivan Andreevich Krylov — Russian poet, fabulist, translator, writer
- Alexander Griboyedov — Russian playwright, poet and diplomat, composer Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin - the greatest Russian poet, playwright and novelist
- Mikhail Lermontov — Russian poet, novelist, playwright, artist and an officer
- Fyodor Dostoevsky — one of the most significant and world-known Russian writers and thinkers
- Anton Pavlovich Chekhov — Russian novelist, playwright, creator of the works of Russian classics
- Sawa Timofeevich Morozov — Russian businessman and philanthropist
- Boris Leonidovich Pasternak — Russian writer and poet, Nobel Prize in literature
- Mikhail Bulgakov Afanasyevich — Russian Soviet writer, playwright and theater director, author of the novel "The Master and Margarita"
- Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov — the great Russian military leader, who suffered no defeat in his military career, one of the founders of Russian martial arts
- Andrei Rublev — the most famous and revered master of the Moscow school of icon painting, book and monumental painting of the XV century
Details about them can be found in museums in the capital. You will certainly be pleasantly surprised with infrastructure of Moscow in full the relevant European standard of quality. Cozy restaurants for every taste, comfortable hotels of all places, unique museums, theaters, nightclubs, attracting tourists from all over the world. Lovers of antiques also have to look at. the unforgettable beauty of the city to create a monument of Russian architecture, some of which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. If you are in Moscow for the first time, we
1. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square
2. Cathedral of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
3. The State Museum of Fine Arts of Pushkin
4. All-Russia museum association "State Tretyakov Gallery"
5. Central Museum of Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945
6. Palace of Peter I on the Yauza
7. Museum "Pokrovsky Cathedral" (St. Basil)
8. The Planetarium
9. National Museum of the Moscow Metro
10. Lomakovsky museum of vintage cars and motorcycles
11. The main centre of Radio and Television Federation (Ostankino Tower)
12. State Collection of Unique Musical Instruments
13. The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre of Russia
14. Moscow Art Theatre of Chekhov
15. Moscow theater Taganka
16. Moscow State Theatre "Lenkom"
17. Moscow Theatre "Sovremennik"
18. Maliy Theatre
19. Botanical Garden of N.V. Tsitsin of Acdemy of Sciences
20. Manor "Kolomna"
21. Park "Izmailovo"
22. Park "Tsaritsino"
23. Park "Ostankino"
These attractions are for all tastes and a list of them we will constantly replenish. So bolder form their tourist itinerary, and in that will help you your personal electronic office.